How To Select Batteries for Any Application

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The selection of batteries for any application is a critical exercise. A number of factors must be considered in selecting the best battery for a particular application. The characteristics of each available battery must be weighed against the equipment requirements and one selected that best satisfy these needs. The considerations that are important and influence the selection of the battery are tabulated below
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Battery Factors to Consider Remarks
Type of Battery Is battery required, primary, secondary, or reserve system?
Electrochemical System Compare the advantages and disadvantages of the selected battery characteristics with major equipment requirements
Voltage Consider the nominal or operating voltage, maximum and minimum permissible voltages, voltage regulation, profile of discharge curve, start-up time, voltage delay
Load Current & Profile Consider whether the load profile of the selected battery is a constant current, constant resistance, or constant power; or others; value of load current or profile, single-valued or variable load, pulsed load
Duty Cycle Is the duty cycle of the battery required continuous or intermittent, cycling schedule if intermittent?
Temperature Requirements What temperature range over which operation of battery is required?
Service Life Length of time operation is required
Physical Requirements Consider the size, shape, weight; terminals of battery
Shelf Life Active/ reserve battery system; state of charge during storage; storage time as function of temperature, humidity and other conditions.
Charge – Discharge Cycle (For Rechargeable Batteries) Float or cycling service; life or cycle requirement; availability and characteristics of charging source; charging efficiency.
Environmental conditions Consider vibration, shock, spin, acceleration, etc.; atmospheric conditions (pressure, humidity, etc.) of selected battery and determine if suitable for your application
Safety and Reliability Permissible variability, failure rates; freedom from out gassing or leakage; use of potentially hazardous or toxic components; type of effluent or signature gases or liquids, high temperature, etc.; operation under severe or potentially hazardous conditions; environmentally friendly.
Unusual or Stringent Operating Conditions Very long-term or extreme-temperature storage, standby, or operation; high reliability for special applications; rapid activation for reserve batteries, no voltage delay; special packaging for batteries (pressure vessels, etc.); unusual mechanical requirements, e.g., high shock or acceleration, nonmagnetic
Maintenance & Re-Supply Ease of battery acquisition, accessible distribution; ease of battery replacement; available charging facilities; special transportation, recovery, or disposal procedures required
Cost Initial cost; operating or life-cycle cost; use of critical or exotic (costly) materials